Glaucoma Clinic

Glaucoma is a disease of the optic nerve caused primarily by increased pressure in the eye.

Mechanism

The inside of the eye contains a fluid, which is produced and drained out of the eye constantly. It is drained through a thin sleeve like structure which is situated at the angle between the transparent cornea and the iris. When the drainage mechanism does not work properly, the pressure in the eye (intra-ocular pressure) increases leading to damage of the optic nerve.

Effects of glaucoma

Patients who have Glaucoma can develop loss of vision which is permanent and irreversible over a period of time. The vision loss starts from periphery and progressively affects the central vision. The central visual acuity is affected only in the advanced stage. Progressive loss of visual field with corresponding optic nerve damage

Types of Glaucoma

  • Open angle glaucoma, in which, despite of open drainage angle, the drainage does not occur
  • Angle closure (closed angle) glaucoma, in which the angle itself is closed preventing fluid drainage
  • Secondary glaucoma, which occurs due to other eye disease or treatment

Symptoms of Glaucoma

Majority of patients with glaucoma do not have any symptoms. Glaucoma is known as a silent disease because the vision remains unaffected till the late stages of the disease. It is usually detected during a routine eye checkup.

One type Acute angle closure can present with severe pain, halos and sometimes vomiting

When to checkup

Everyone over the age of 40 years should have a detailed eye checkup, also if there is a family history of Glaucoma.

Risk factors

  • Family history of glaucoma
  • Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or thyroid disease
  • Near sighted
  • Treatment with steroids (in the form of tablets, inhalers, eye drops)
  • Have a history of trauma

Tests for Glaucoma

Various tests are done to find out the presence of glaucoma and also its progression
  • Tonometry: Measures the pressure in the eye (intraocular pressure – IOP)
  • Gonioscopy: To visualize the angle structures
  • Ophthalmoscopy: To view the optic nerve
  • Pachymetry: Measures the thickness of cornea
  • Perimetry: Determines the field of vision
All these tests are painless.

Treatment options

Glaucoma is a preventable disease that needs early detection because the damage is irreversible. The treatment options are medicines (eye drops), laser or surgery. Requirement of medicines can be lifelong per the instructions given by doctor. Lasers are sometimes used to increase the flow of fluid. When the pressure cannot be controlled by either medicines or laser treatment, then surgery may be recommended.

The Specialized Glaucoma Clinic at Yateem Eye Center

This clinic will be running one day of the week for all those patients who are diagnosed with Glaucoma. A case wise Management Plan will be created with full involvement of the patients so that they understand the seriousness of their disease and comply with the treatment. All the diagnostic tests that are needed will be done for proper diagnosis and to develop a customized treatment plan. The detailed investigations will be a level above any routine Glaucoma Management consultation and will include: – UBM – Ultrasound Biomicroscopy Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Optic Nerve Photography Optical Coherence Tomography of Optic Nerve Intraocular Pressure recording for Diurnal Variations Gonioscopy imaging Contrast Sensitivity testing Advanced Color Vision Testing